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Radar Invisibility

Barium Titanate metamaterials

Barium Titanate was actually one of the first of a new class of materials called metamaterials to be discovered. Although not confirmed, it is suspected to be one of the key ingredients in Radar invisible paints which are used to paint stealth aircraft. It is also suspected to be one of the toxic materials that was burned at Area 51 illegally resulting in toxic smoke covering the town of Rachel Nevada and several law suits being filed by individuals working on the base.

Quasicrystalline metamaterials

Since ordinary left-handed metamaterials have a limit to how small we can make them, scientists have been looking for other ways. The answer to this question lies in nanophotonics, and in a new type of material called "quasicrystals".

Nanophotonics are now being recognized as a special branch of optics, in much the same way as nanoelectronics form a special branch of electronics. Some of the technological problems that had appeared at the time of the first studies on photonic crystals, are currently in the process of being solved. However, it should be stressed that future development and applications of photonic crystals are definitively dependent on the degree of accuracy which can be achieved in the fabrication of micro- and nanostructures, and thus on the overall dimensions of the corresponding devices.

One of the most striking illustrations of the fruitfulness of research on metallo-dielectric photonic crystals is probably the development of the so-called metamaterials, which are expected to provide a new approach towards negative refraction, through the simultaneous control of the effective permittivity and the effective permeability.

Since metamaterials are dependent upon the structure of the material rather than the properties of the atoms that make up it's composition, it is possible to build photonic metamaterials using packed nanospheres. Recently major breakthroughs have occurred in Nonlinear Liquid Crystal Nano-Metamaterials which use nanosphere- and nanoshell-doped liquid crystals can produce metamaterials with a tunable refractive index!

21st Century Scientific Research Continues

Best Sources on Invisibility Science

These sources are courtesy of Professor Graeme Milton:

Tachi and collaborators - projection cloak
Aliev 2011 - Mirages using heated carbon nanothreads
Alu and Engheta 2005
S. Serkov 2001
Cheney et. al. 1999 - Electrical impedance tomography
Pendry, Shurig, and Smith 2009
Nicolet et. al. 2008
Shurig, Mock, Justice, Cummer, Pendry, Starr, Smith 2006
Cai, Chettiar, Kildishev, and Shalaev
Farhat et al 2008
Li and Pendry 2008 - hiding under the carpet
Valentine et. al. 2009 - experimental realization
Gabrielli et. al. 2009
Ergin et. al. 2010
Zhang et. al 2011
Chen et. al 2011
Leonhardt and Tyc 2008 - Non Euclidean cloaking
Marc Briane and John Willis 2006
Cummer & Shurig 2007
Greenleaf et. al. 2007
Chen & Chan 2007
Brun Guenneau and Movchan 2009
Sheng, Zhang, Liu, and Chan 2003
Nicorovici and Mphedran 1994
Hess 2008 - Negative refraction simulation
Valentine et. al. 2008 - Negative Refraction at optical frequencies
Veselago Lens 1967
The Superlens Pendry 2000
Leonhardt and Philbin 2006
Garcia and Nieto-Vesperinas 2002
Pokrovsky and Efros 2002
Cummer 2003
Shvets 2003
Lai et. al. 2009
Fernando Guevara Vasquez and Daniel Onofrei - Broadband active cloaking